Category: Information

Nazi Coins Info

The Third Reich started issuing clearly identifiable “Nazi” coins (ie with swastika) from 1936. Although the Nazi’s were in power from 1933, with Adolf Hitler as the party leader.

The Third Reich minted a range of coins of different designs through their 7 mint factories. As a general rule, the less coins minted by a particular mint factory, then the harder it would be to find these coins and thus the greater their potential value on today’s market. 1936 was a particularly good year for most denomination coins, particular the smaller Reichspfennig coins. In May 1945, the Nazi regime came to a grinding halt along with its captured or destroyed mint factories. Hitler either escaped or was killed, his fake sucide and skull, held by the russians has since been proven to be that of a woman.

Above 1 Reichspfennig in copper, 2 Reichspfennig in copper, 5 Reichspfennig in copper/Alum. Alloy
10 Reichspfennig in copper/Alum. Alloy, 50 Reichspfennig in aluminum, 2 Reichsmark in 62.5% silver,5 Reichsmark in 90 % silver

Adolf Hitler did not feature on any official Third Reich coins. Instead, it was the Reich president Von Hindenburg who was commemorated on Nazi Germany’s coins both before his death and after. One might well question however why the 1935-1936 Nazi 5 Mark silver coin featuring  the bust of Hindenburg, did not incorporate two small swastikas on either side of  the Reichsadler. After all, the earlier 1934-1935 Nazi 5 Mark silver coin featuring the  Potsdam Church (Postdam Kirche) incorporated the use of the swastika.

The 3rd Reich had a number of mints (coin factories). Each mint location had its own identifiable letter. It  is therefore possible to identify exactly which mint produced what coin by noting the mint mark on the coin. Not all mints were authorized to produce coins every year. The mints were also only authorized to produce a set number of coins with some mints allocated a greater production than others. Some of the coins with particular mint marks are therefore scarcer than others. With the silver 2 and 5 Reichsmark coins, the mint mark is found under the date on the left side of the coin. On the smaller denomination Reichspfennig coins, the mint mark is found on the bottom center of the coin.

A = Berlin
B = Wien (Vienna)
D = München (Munich)
E = Muldenhütten (Dresden)
F = Stuttgart
G = Karlsruhe
J = Hamburg

10 Reichspfennig 1945 A

These are rarer varieties from the Third Reich. Military issues are tough to find especially ones minted outside Berlin. Most of general issued zinc coins are quite common except for the ones dated 1945. This one posted is minted in Berlin.

The Change to Decimal Coinage

Prior to ‘D-Day’ on 15th February 1971 the English coinage system was based on the following relationships:

  • 2 Farthings = 1 Halfpenny
  • 2 Halfpence = 1 Penny (1d)
  • 6 Pence = Sixpence (often referred to as a tanner) (6d)
  • 12 Pence = 1 Shilling (often referred to as bob, e.g. six bob) (1/-)
  • 2 shillings = 1 Florin (or two bob bit) (2/-)
  • 2 Shillings and 6 Pence = 1 Half Crown (rarely referred to as half a dollar) (2/6)
  • 5 shillings = 1 Crown (5/-)
  • 20 Shillings = 1 Pound (often referred to as a quid) (£1)

Other terms much more rarely used include

  • 4 Pence = 1 Groat (4d)
  • 13 Shillings and 4 Pence (160 pence) = 1 Mark (13/4)
  • 21 Shillings = 1 Guinea (£1/1/-)

Note the way sums of money were written: 6/8 means 6 shillings and eightpence, while £2/19/11 was two pounds nineteen shillings and eleven pence. The use of d for penny may seem odd until you realise it is short for the Latin denarius.

The term guinea was (and is) used for 21 shillings (£1.05), especially in horse racing and by auction houses, although no coin of that value has been issued since 1813.

The Mark was traditionally used as a standard fine by the University of Cambridge during my own time there in the early 1960’s.

In advance of D-day the halfpenny and half-crown were withdrawn, and 5 new pence and 10 new pence coins were issued from 1968 to circulate alongside the existing shilling and florin coins. A 50p coin appeared in 1969 to replace the old 10 shilling banknote. The farthing had gone long before, in 1961.

After D-day the penny and threepence coins rapidly disappeared from use. The sixpence continued in use as 2½ pence for about nine years. The new halfpenny went not long afterwards. However, the old shillings and florins continued alongside the 5p and 10p coins until a reduction in size in the early 1990’s resulted in their disappearance from circulation. The 50p coin was also reduced in size in 1997.

Three new coins have been introduced since decimalisation – the 20p appeared in 1982 followed by the pound coin in 1983 and the two pound coin in 1998 (although 1997 versions are frequently found in change). Commemorative two pound coins were issued irregularly from 1986, but these early coins differ from the circulating version first issued in 1998 in that the latter is much thinner and is also bimetallic.

Source Coins Of the UK website, URL:

Originally, coins were milled in order to prevent scalping the edge of precious gold and silver coins or to indicate the highest valued denomination coin at that time. Circulating unmilled British sterling silver coins were known to be shaved to almost half of their minted weight. Now it is done in order to identify the specific coin easily or to prevent counterfeiting. The holed coins also conserve coinage material

Source Fleur De Coin Website URL

The Sheldon Coin Grading Scale is a 70 point scale used in the numismatic assessment of a coins quality. It is used by nearly all major coin grading companies, the main two being NGC and PCGS.

The grades for the scale are as follows:

Blank Poor Fair AG G VG F VF XF AU MS Proof
0 1 2 3 4-6 8-10 12-15 20-35 40-45 50-58 60-70 60-70

Acronyms Explained:

AG – About Good

G – Good

VG – Very Good

F – Fine

VF – Very Fine

XF – Extra Fine

AU – About Uncirculated / Almost Unirculated

MS – Mint State

The scale was invented by William Herbert Sheldon.

William Herbert Sheldon, Jr. (November 19, 1898 – September 17, 1977) was a American psychologist and numismatist. He created the field of somatotype and constitutional psychology that tried to correlate body types with behavior, intelligence and social hierarchy through his Ivy League nude posture photos.  However, his work is generally dismissed by modern researchers.

The main difference between coin collecting before and after the Renaissance is the development of an active market. With the new wave of interest, demand for antique coins greatly exceeded the available supply. During the 15th and 16th centuries, ancient-coin collecting became the “hobby of kings,” and the list of collectors is a list of European nobility. At the same time, famous artists were employed by these patrons to create replicas of ancient coins and portrait or commemorative medals, which became collectible in their own right. The appetite of collectors fueled a cottage industry of agents and prompted a search of source lands for salable artifacts. As might be expected, the insatiable market created such demand that it also fostered the introduction of forgeries.

By the 17th century, the nature of collecting had shifted slowly toward serious research. As a result, very broad collections were formed, studied, and cataloged. Numismatics became an academic pursuit, and many important treatises were published during that period. The involvement of institutions and the rise of public collections in the 18th century led to sponsorship of academic study, which elevated numismatics to the stature of a science. Most important, the exchange of information and new discoveries was formalized through detailed and widely published treatises on the topic of coins and collecting. Many of the large private collections of noble families came under state control during this period, and the subsequent cataloging of these holdings added volumes to existing knowledge. This information was readily available to the general public, and coin collecting became a pursuit of middle-class merchants and members of the various professions who were growing in numbers as well as cultural sophistication. Collecting ancient coins is one of the few ways that the average person can own actual objects from antiquity, and this point was not lost on the growing collector base. Coins are remarkably accessible pieces of history


The long-held view that coin collecting began with the Italian Renaissance has been challenged by evidence that the activity is even more venerable.Suetonius (ad 69–122) relates in his De vita Caesarum (Lives of the Twelve Caesars; Augustus 75) written in the first century CE, the emperor Augustus was fond of old exotic foreign coins and presented or gave them as gifts to his friends and courtiers during festivals and other special occasions.

Imperator Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) is considered the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD


Monegasque euro coins are produced by Monnaie de Paris, in Pessac, France beginning in 2001 and thus bear the mint master mark of Gerard Buquoy, Serge Levet and Hubert Lariviere, directors of the mint from 2001–2002, 2003 and 2004–present, respectively.

Mint master marks on Monegasque euro coins
Mark Mark description Name of mint master Coin dates
Euro mintmaster france 02.jpg horseshoe Gerard Buquoy 2001–2002
Euro mintmaster france 03.jpg stylized heart with the initials of the mint master  Serge Levet 2003
Euro mintmaster france 04.jpg[4] hunting horn, a wave and a fish Hubert Lariviere 2004–present

The directors of Monnaie de Paris in Pessac use mint master’s marks on all French euro coins minted at this location.

Mint master marks on French euro coins
Mark Mark description Name of mint master Coin dates
Euro mintmaster france 01.jpg bee Pierre Rodier 1999–2000
Euro mintmaster france 02.jpg horseshoe Gerard Buquoy 2001–2002
Euro mintmaster france 03.jpg stylized heart with the initials of the mint master Serge Levet 2003
Euro mintmaster france 04.jpg hunting horn, a wave and a fish Hubert Lariviere 2004–present

Mint marks

The use of mint marks on euro coins takes one of these three forms:

  • a single letter representing a city or country
  • the abbreviation of the country’s mint
  • the symbol of the country’s mint
Mint marks on euro coins by country
Country Mint location Mint mark Mint mark description Notes
Belgium Brussels Euro mintmarkmark belgium.jpg Head of archangel Saint Michael, patron saint of Brussels. Prior to 2008, Belgian marks had only been used on commemorative issues. Since 2008, the marks are used on both standard issue and commemorative issue coins.
Finland Vantaa Euro id finland s02.jpg logo of the Rahapaja Oy mint
France Pessac Euro mintmarkmark france.jpg Cornucopia,Different of the Monnaie de Paris
Germany German Euro coins are minted at 5 locations in Germany ADFG,J letters A for Berlin, D for Munich, F for Stuttgart, G for Karlsruhe, J for Hamburg
Greece (2002) Madrid, Spain
Pessac, France
Vantaa, Finland
E (20c),
F (1c, 2c, 5c, 10c and 50c),
S (€1 and €2)
letters E for Spain (España), F for France, S for Finland (Suomi).
The initial supply of Greek euro coins were produced at three locations, in addition to the Athens mint, due to their late entry into the European Monetary Union (EMU) just before the introduction date on 1 January 2002; only certain denominations of Greek coins with the date stamp of “2002” have these mint marks. Greek euro coins dated 2002 without these mint marks were produced in Athens, Greece.
All Greek euro coins bear the standard Greek mint mark symbol of the Athens mint.
Greece (2002–present) Athens Euro mintmark greece.jpg stylized acanthus leaf
Italy Rome R letter
Lithuania Vilnius Euro mintmark lithuania.jpg Lietuvos monetų kalykla(Lithuanian Mint House, LMK) logo Lithuania is not yet part of the Eurozone. When the Euro is introduced, this is the mintmark which will be used.
Luxembourg (2002–2004) Utrecht, Netherlands Euro mintmark netherlands.jpg Mercury’s wand, the logo of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Munt (Royal Dutch Mint)
Luxembourg (2005–2006) Vantaa, Finland SEuro id finland s02.jpg letter, logo of the Rahapaja Oy mint
Luxembourg (2007–2008) Pessac, France FEuro mintmarkmark france.jpg letter, Cornucopia,Different of the Monnaie de Paris
Luxembourg (2009–present) Utrecht, Netherlands Euro mintmark netherlands.jpg Mercury’s wand, the logo of theKoninklijke Nederlandse Munt (Royal Dutch Mint)
Malta Paris, France F letter
Monaco Pessac, France Euro mintmarkmark france.jpg Cornucopia,Different of theMonnaie de Paris (Paris Mint)
Netherlands Utrecht Euro mintmark netherlands.jpg Mercury’s wand, the logo of theKoninklijke Nederlandse Munt (Royal Dutch Mint)
Poland Warsaw Euro mintmark poland.jpg Mennica Polska (Polish Mint) logo Poland is not yet part of the Eurozone. When the Euro is introduced, this is the mintmark which will be used.
The Polish Mint logo is the letter M on top of the letter W and comes fromMennica Warszawa or Warsaw Mint
Portugal Lisbon INCM Imprensa Nacional – Casa de Moeda(National Currency – Mint House) abbreviation
San Marino Rome, Italy R letter
Slovakia Kremnica Euro mintmark slovakia.jpg Mincovňa Kremnica(Kremnican Mint, MK) logo
Slovenia (2007) Vantaa, Finland Fi abbreviation
Slovenia (2008–present) Utrecht, Netherlands Euro mintmark netherlands.jpg Mercury’s wand, the logo of theKoninklijke Nederlandse Munt (Royal Dutch Mint)
Spain Madrid Euro mintmark spain.jpg Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre(National Factory of Currency and Stamps) logo
Vatican Rome, Italy R letter



Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy Onassis was the wife of the 35th president of the United States,John F. Kennedy, and served as First Lady during his presidency from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. She was later married to Greek shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis from 1968 until his death in 1975. In later years she had a successful career as a book editor, and is remembered for her style and elegance.

Jackie is well know as lady of beauty always well dressed and wearing exquisite jewellery but the Onassis Empire had a huge gold coin collection.